Mechanical loss

Mechanical loss is the mechanical energy that is consumed in working machines by friction and factors other than the work performed. The following mechanical losses occur in engines before the indicated horsepower manifests at shaft ends of engines.
(1) Wear resistance on pistons and cylinders
(2) Friction resistance on crankshafts, camshafts, and the many other rotating shafts.
(3) Power required to drive auxiliary devices such as oil pumps, water pumps, and generators, etc.
Therefore, the horsepower at the ends of the output shafts that can actually be used as engine power output is less than the indicated horsepower.
This usable horsepower is referred to as net horsepower, shaft horsepower, or brake horsepower.

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